Saturday, July 5, 2014

TEAM DEVELOPMENT

TEAM DEVELOPMENT STAGES

The Team Development model was first proposed by Bruce W Tuckman1 in 1965. That is why this model is also called Tuckman's model of Team Development. Initially when he proposed there were only four stages. Later on in 1977 he proposed the fifth stage of adjourning in collaboration with Mary Ann Jensen.

Figure.1

S/N
TEAM DEVELOPMENT STAGE
PMBOK® Information2
Further Information
1
Forming
In this stage the team meets and learns about the project and their formal roles and responsibilities. Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this phase
This is the stage where the team members meet each other and try to be very formal and cordial with each other. They learn about the opportunities and the challenges in the project and agree formally for the goals that need to be attained in the project. Most of the team members tend to be independent in this stage. It is more or less how we behave in any gathering when we meet first time someone in the gathering.
2
Storming
The team begins to address the project work, technical decisions, and the project management approach in this stage. If team members are not collaborative and open to differing ideas and
perspectives, the environment can become counterproductive
This is the stage where the team members are characterised by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues. However the team members also looks into the issues that needs to be addressed in the project. How each team member has to function independently and as a team player together. This is the stage where the team members open up and confront to each other's ideas and perspectives. Since most of the time is spent in non-productive work in this stage, this stage is also called as counterproductive stage of the project.
3
Norming
In this stage team members begin to work together and adjust their work habits and behaviors to support the team. The team learns to trust each other.
This is the stage where the team understands each other's strengths, weaknesses and try to work towards a common goal. So this is the stage where they agree on ground rules, expected professional behavior, shared methods, working tools, common templates. And this is the stage where some trust builds into and the team members accepts each other's strengths and weakness and agree on their contributions towards the project.
4
Performing
The teams that reach the performing stage function as a well-organized unit. They are interdependent and work through issues smoothly and effectively.
This is the stage where the team performs well and the real contribution towards the project comes from this stage. The team requires very less supervision in this stage. They become motivated, knowledgeable, competent enough to perform, interdependent and will be able to handle decision-making with very less or without supervision.
5
Adjourning
In this stage the team completes the work and moves on from the project.  This typically occurs when staff is released from the project as deliverables are completed or as part of carrying out the Close Project or Phase process
This is the stage where project comes to an end. The lessons learned are documented for future guidance and use. Success of the project is celebrated. Team says good-bye to each other and tries to keep in touch for any future projects or move on to other projects. Parting will add a tinge of sadness though in this stage. That is the reason sometimes people call it as the mourning stage also.

The Team Development is not sequential as depicted in Figure.1 In fact it is most of the times iterative as mentioned in Figure 2. Generally the storming, Norming and Performing stages are iterative.
 
 
Figure.2

At any given amount of time if any new team member(s) joins the team then the team goes back to Forming stage.

The Tuckmann model of various stages of Team Development is depicted graphically in Figure.3


Figure.3

The level of functioning of a team at various stages of Team development is graphically represented in Figure.4.

Figure.4

References:
1.     Wikipedia
2.     PMBOK®  5th Edition, Page 276

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